Essay on “Modernization of Indian Agriculture” for Students and Children, Best English Essay, Paragraph, Speech for Class 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12

Modernization of Indian Agriculture


Agricultural universities

Agricultural universities like the Punjab Agricultural University at Ludhiana, Haryana Agricultural University at Hissar, HP Agricultural University at Palampur, etc. and institutions like the Indian Council of Agricultural Research have played a prominent role in revolutionizing agricultural growth in India. It is well-recognized that the Green Revolution in India was mainly the outcome of PAU’s pivotal role.


When the famous Russian leader, Khruschev, who had a powerful gift of the gab, came to India, he was asked in Bangalore to ride an elephant, but he quipped that riding a tractor was more dignified than riding an elephant. Till that time even the use of tractors was a luxury for the Indian agriculturists. Indian agriculture had still to go a long way. It may not be known to all that in 1900 the Indian agricultural produce was just 3 crore tons and in 1947, i.e. at the time of partition, it was not more than 3.5 crore tons. In other words, the British rulers did not pay much attention to the development of agriculture and agricultural infrastructure, and machinery in India.


After the partition, dams like the Bhakra Dam, the Hirakud Dam, and others were built and mechanization started with the use of tractors, harvesters, etc. besides the digging of more and more tube wells, particularly in North India. Thus, the face of Indian agriculture began to change. It is, however, deplorable that in certain states like Orissa, Bihar, and parts of the U.P. agriculture is still carried on with the traditional and almost non-remunerative outdated methods and means.

A National symposium

At the national symposium captioned: “Modernising Indian Agriculture in the 21st century: challenges, opportunities, and strategies,” organized by the International Extension Forum, a number of papers were presented. These papers made interesting and useful reading. Among the more noticeable papers were those presented by A.G. Sawant, P. Badrinarayanan, and Rajula Chandran.


Agricultural extension policy

A.G. Sawant pointed out that Agricultural Extension Policy if successfully implemented, could boost agricultural income by giving an impetus to (much-wanted), technological changes. According to him, food, nutrition, and environmental security were the major challenges keeping in view the rapidly increasing population. As per an estimate, besides a tangible increase in the supply of horticultural, sea, and dairy products, at least five million tonnes of additional food grains are required per year to feed the new mouths.

The transfer of the agricultural technology system in India entails four pertinent points as an inference from what Sawant said in his paper. First, agricultural extension services concerning the state governments. Secondly, extension education systems such as that of ICAR and SAIL. Thirdly, an extension program of input industries pertaining to NGOs and those in public and private sectors. Lastly, Central and State Governments, have special rural development programs.

Different opinions

In the opinion of P. Badrinarayanan, during the last many years, the transfer of technology has already undergone many vital changes in its approach mechanism to attain greater speed and efficiency.

However, Rajula Chandran opines that the prevailing trend when technology reaches a farmer only at a later advanced stage should be reversed. He thinks that the farmers should be allowed to participate in the process at all stages.

Surplus stocks and Quality of food

It is to be noted that there is not much to celebrate the large surpluses in food grains such as wheat and rice. No doubt, our scientists and farmers have done a commendable job. But the fact remains that we have almost a runaway situation in the matter of control of exploding population when we have to feed more and more mouths constantly. Moreover, Indian agricultural produce is not of a very high quality, as is evident from the fact that even as poor and starving country as Iraq refused to accept Indian wheat which has to be disposed of at a throw-away price in a Gulf country. The quality of food has also to be improved. We have also to give more attention to cash crops such as guava, papaya, etc., and the production of pulses, horticultural products, livestock, sea food, etc. which are indispensable to people’s heath as these are the products which contain all the necessary proteins, vitamins and minerals. Expectant mothers and children particularly need such foods.

Water and Genetic engineering

Crops cannot grow without an adequate supply of water. Hence, water management is crucial in the matter of increasing food production. It means that new and latest kind of machinery is required not only for simple agricultural purposes but also for irrigational methods which are closely related to agriculture.

Besides new farming and irrigational methods, we have to take help from genetic engineering in the matter of sowing seeds such as can ensure bumper crops for the large coming generations.


Needless to say that the World Trade organizational global changes have thrown a new challenge to the agricultural universities. In spite of the rising budgetary trends, these universities are facing a severe financial crunch. It is mainly because of a steep rise in salaries, wages, and pensions that swallow a major chunk of the budgets. The result is that the system of teaching, research, and extension education is under severe strain. This scenario has to be changed at the earliest to ensure rapid modernization of agriculture.

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