GK Question “The Pencil Was Invented By Whom?” general knowledge book English 2021 current affairs quiz and answers for class 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 students Exam.

The Pencil Was Invented By Whom?

In Latin there is a word, “Pencils”. This word means “little tail”. The word was used to indicate a fine brush. The word originally meant a small, fine, pointed brush.

Now, the word pencil means different altogether. Pencils as we know them are less than 200 years old. Graphite was discovered about 500 years ago in a mine in Cumberland, England. It is believed that some crude pencils were made then.

In the year 1760, the famous Faber family established it’s business in Nuremberg, Germany. They used pulverized graphite to make a pencil. They were not successful. In 1795, a man called N.J. Conte produced pencils made of graphite, which had been ground with certain clay, pressed into sticks and fired in a kiln. This method is the basis of manufacture of modern pencils.

We know, a “lead” pencil does not contain lead but a mineral called graphite. Graphite leaves a mark when drawn across paper, something like lead. It is on this account, that it is called “black lead” and we get the name ‘lead pencil’.

For manufacturing pencils, dried, powdered graphite is mixed with clay and water. The more clay, the harden will be the pencil; the more graphite, the softer the pencil. The mixture is kneaded like dough and to the same consistency, it is passed through a forming process and comes out as a thin, sleek, rope like. It is straightened out, cut into required lengths and baked in ovens.

The already prepared wood cases, made in two halves and grooved to contain the baked lead are brought. The cases are made of either red, cedar or pine. The lead is inserted in the groove, the two halves are glued together. A saw is used to cut the slats into every individual pencil and the shaping machine smooths the surface to fine finish.

Now, more than 350 different kinds of pencils are made. Every kind has a specific purpose. There are 19 degrees of pencils of varying hardness, and intensity. These are available in 72 different colours. We have pencils to write on glass, cloth, plastics, movie film and cellophane. There is separate set of pencils for use by engineers in field of construction. These pencils do not fade even after years of exposure to weather.

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